The sewn or binding edge of the gathered sections of a book to which the lining is applied.
The back may be flat, but more often it is given a convex curve in a binding procedure called rounding.
In printing and Web page design, to arrange text and graphics on a page in a configuration that is aesthetically pleasing.
A library collection containing materials that present the full range of opinion on controversial issues and sensitive topics, for example, the "for" and "against" positions on legalized abortion, or religious books representing a variety of faiths.
Back matter is paginated in arabic numerals continuously with the text.
Blank leaves may be included at the end to make up a full section.
Synonymous in the UK with A commercial company in the business of supplying noncurrent volumes and issues of serial publications to libraries and other institutions, usually to replace missing items or fill gaps in the library's holdings of a particular title (In bookbinding, the central portion of the covering material, extending from the front joint to the back joint over the inlay separating the boards, stamped with the spine title and the author's name in most editions. In data processing, to make a second copy of an important data file in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.
Also, a removable name tag worn by a library employee who works in public services, identifying the wearer to library patrons.By folding the leaves over each other close to the binding edge, the process also helps maintain the rounded shape of the spine, preventing the leaves from working their way forward.Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.On the Internet, regional networks are connected to the fiber-optic backbone, smaller networks are connected to regional networks, and so on, down the line.To see examples for various countries, try a keywords search on the phrase "internet and backbone" in To make a document or transaction effective from a date earlier than its actual date, for example, a book order given a prior date with the publisher's permission, to allow the purchaser to qualify for an expired discount.